Dairy Processing - November/December 2023 - 62

FOOD SAFETY
ingredient in any product coming out of a facility.
" Because of its biological nature, specific steps are required
to keep [raw milk] safe, " Adam said. " For example, milk
must be cooled immediately after cows are milked to reduce
microbial proliferation. Milk must also be pasteurized before
being used in manufacturing. "
Those inherent characteristics of dairy products, though,
have made the dairy industry a " high quality model " for the
food industry overall, Salter said.
Dairy processors must maintain the voluntary
standards that were agreed upon with the US Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) as part of the Pasteurized Milk
Ordinance, which calls for dairy facilities and personnel to be
audited more frequently than other food manufacturers.
" They have required training dates in order to perform
functions in the plant, " Salter added. " The controls in place
are generally more strict than the rest of the food industry.
Sometimes controls are very prescriptive - for example,
requiring antibiotic screening of all incoming milk tanks as
they enter dairies and requiring a negative before they can
be unloaded. "
When Salter thinks about facilities with effective quality
control and toxicology programs in place, he said they
exemplify being clean " top to bottom " and well maintained.
" They have long shelf lives to the products produced, and
their products meet those shelf life dates, " Salter added. " They
have employees that understand the details of the processes
and the quality and toxicology controls in place. "
Likewise, Adam said successful facilities utilize regulated
temperature control, good sanitation measures, effective
detection and monitoring procedures, and expertise in dealing
with both common and unfamiliar issues.
As one would expect, strong and strictly implemented food
safety and quality programs are vital for a first-class operation.
Llewellyn said that requires investing in internal and/or external
62 NOV-DEC 2023 | DAIRYPROCESSING.COM
resources. He also identified other necessities, such as a " deep
understanding " of food science, food safety and quality hazards
and risks, as well as key aspects of ingredients procurement,
and risk-based supply chain verification programs.
" As food safety information should not be seen as
competitive, having an external presence in trade associations
and professional groups helps to keep organizations at the
cutting edge of effective food safety and quality programs, "
Llewellyn said.
EXTRA SCRUTINY
Critical observation is expected in dairy production,
particularly in terms of monitoring quality control and
toxicology. Still, some products are associated with especially
shrewd examination.
" Any products that are fed to newborns and infants or to
[older adults] and immune compromised require the highest
scrutiny, " Salter said. " Formula, powdered milk and ice cream
are just a few. "
Adam suggested yogurts and cheeses require vigilant
monitoring, as well.
" Cultured products may need special attention because
of the risks of toxin production if the products are not stored
under optimum aging or ripening conditions, " Adam said. " The
presence of phage may also cause fermentation failures that
may allow the growth of pathogenic microbes. "
Furthermore, Llewellyn advised, because each step along
the supply chain is important for dairy products - including
food contact and packaging components - a high level of riskbased
scrutiny is required for every variety of product.
" Because dairy products can contain ingredients that may
be sourced from all over the country and world, no one dairy
product should be viewed as requiring more scrutiny than
another, " Llewellyn said. " Food safety and quality programs
should be viewed as equal for all dairy products. "
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Dairy Processing - November/December 2023

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Dairy Processing - November/December 2023

Dairy Processing - November/December 2023 - Intro
Dairy Processing - November/December 2023 - 1
Dairy Processing - November/December 2023 - 2
Dairy Processing - November/December 2023 - 3
Dairy Processing - November/December 2023 - 4
Dairy Processing - November/December 2023 - 5
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