Dairy Processing - January/February 2023 - 30

FORMULATIONS
managing
moisture
Maintaining water in dairy products keeps them safe and superior.
by Donna Berry | donnaberry@dairy-food.com
W
ater - that molecule consisting of two hydrogen
atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom
- is the principal constituent of milk, with cows'
milk being about 87% water.
Managing that moisture is paramount for quality and safety.
TYPES OF WATER
The most basic form of water is referred to as bulk water.
This is when water is free from any other constituents. Each
water molecule is surrounded by other water molecules and
its physicochemical properties resemble pure water. In other
words, this is the water that comes from a spigot.
Trapped water, also known as capillary water, is moisture
held in narrow channels between certain food components.
This trapped water is surrounded by a physical barrier that
prevents the water molecules from easily escaping. Think of
the water in the skin of a blueberry used in a yogurt parfait.
This type of water tends to have physicochemical properties
similar to that of bulk water.
Physically bound water molecules are in molecular
contact with other food constituents, such as proteins,
30 JAN-FEB 2023 | DAIRYPROCESSING.COM
carbohydrates, fats and minerals. These food constituents
bind with water, creating a system that no longer recognizes
the water as free bulk water. Think fluid milk. The bonds
between water molecules and these constituents are quite
different from water-water bonds.
Finally, there are chemically bound water molecules. This
is when water molecules present in a food are chemically
bonded to other molecules as water of crystallization or as
hydrates. Salt and sugar are often the other molecules. These
bonds can be very strong.
CONTENT VS. ACTIVITY
Federal regulations dictate the composition of many dairy
foods. With butter, for example, the minimum butterfat
content in American butters is 80%. By default, butter winds
up being 16% to 18% water and 2% to 4% solids, inclusive of
added salt. With water being a " free " ingredient, in terms of
cost, calories and nutrition, there are maximum levels set for
some foods in order to ensure product integrity.
" Moisture content effects texture, " said Mary Galloway,
application scientist, Meter Group Inc., USA, Pullman,
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Dairy Processing - January/February 2023

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Dairy Processing - January/February 2023

Dairy Processing - January/February 2023 - Intro
Dairy Processing - January/February 2023 - 1
Dairy Processing - January/February 2023 - 2
Dairy Processing - January/February 2023 - 3
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Dairy Processing - January/February 2023 - 5
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